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Ron Kwok


Journal Publications
















Before 1989

Books/Chapters (1 Book, 12 Chapters)

Vaughan, D. G., J. C. Comiso, I. Allison, J. Carrasco, G. Kaser, R. Kwok, P. Mote, T. Murray, F. Paul, J. Ren, E. Rignot, O. Solomina, K. Steffen and T. Zhang, 2013: Observations: Cryosphere. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T. F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press.

Kwok, R., S. Farrell, R. Forsberg, K. Giles, S. Laxon, D. McAdoo, J. Morison, L. Padman, C. Peralta-Ferriz, A. Proshutinsky, and M. Steele, "Combining satellite altimetry, time-variable gravity, and bottom pressure observations to understand the Arctic Ocean: A transformative opportunity", in Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, 2010, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.50. [Refereed].

Breivik, L-A., T. Carrieres, E. Steiner, A. Fleming, F. Girard-Ardbuin, J. Karvonen, R. Kwok, W. N. Meier, M. Makynen, L. Toudal Pedersen, S. Sandven, M. Similia, R. Tonboe, "Remote Sensing of Sea Ice", in Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306, 2010, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.11. [Refereed].

Bamber, J. and R. Kwok: Measurement Techniques, in Mass Balance of the Cryosphere: Modeling of Contemporary and Future Changes, Eds. J. Bamber and T. Payne, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Kwok. R.: Deformation of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: November 1996 through April 1997, in Scaling Laws in Ice Mechanics and Dynamics, edited by J. Dempsey and H. H. Shen, Kluwer Academic, 315-323, 2001.

Rothrock, D. A., R. Kwok, and D. Groves: Satellite Views of the Arctic Ocean Freshwater Balance, in The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean, edited by E. Lyn Lewis, Kluwer Academic, 409-452, 2000.

Kwok, R., S. H. Yueh, and L-L Fu: Spaceborne Radar, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 20, Ed. J. G. Webster, 15-28, 1999.

Tsatsoulis, C. and R. Kwok, Eds: Analysis of SAR data of the Polar Oceans: Recent Advances, Springer Verlag, 1998.
Kwok, R. The RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System. in Analysis of SAR data of the Polar Oceans: Recent Advances, Tsatsoulis, C. and R. Kwok, Eds.: 235-257, Springer Verlag, 1998.

Kwok, R., G. Cunningham and B. Holt: An Approach to Classification of Sea Ice in Spaceborne SAR Data, in Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, Ed. F. D. Carsey, 355-360, Geophysical Monograph 68, AGU.

Holt, B., D. A. Rothrock and R. Kwok: Observations of Sea Ice Motion from Satellite Imagery, in Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, Ed. F. D. Carsey, 343-354, Geophysical Monograph 68, AGU.

Drinkwater, M., H. Israelsson, R. Kwok, R. Onstott, E. Rignot and D. Winebrenner: Potential Applications of Radar Polarimetry to the Classification of Sea Ice, in Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, Ed. F. D. Carsey, 419-442, Geophysical Monograph 68, AGU.

Kwok, R.: Monitoring sea ice thickness from space. Arctic Research of the United States. 14, 8-14, 2000.

Refereed Journal Publications (Total: 150)

2016 – present (3)

Howell, S. E. L., F. Laliberte, R. Kwok, C. Derksen, J. King (2016), Landfast ice thickness in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from observations and models, The Cryosphere, doi:10.5194/tc 2016-71.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, J. Hoffmann, and T. Markus (2016), Testing the ice-water discrimination and freeboard retrieval algorithms for the ICESat-2 mission, Remote Sens. Environ., 183, 13-25, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.05.011.

Kwok, R., and J. Morison (2015), Sea surface height and dynamic topography of the ice-covered oceans from CryoSat-2: 2011-2014, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JC011357.

2014 – 2015 (12)

Kwok, R., (2015), Sea ice convergence along the Arctic coasts of Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Variability and extremes (1992-2014), Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7598-7605, doi:10.1002/2015GL065462.

Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham (2015), Variability of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 373:20140157, doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0157.

Sumata, H., R. Kwok, R. Gerdes, F. Kauker, and M. Karcher (2015), Uncertainty of Arctic summer ice drift assessed by high-resolution SAR data, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 5285-5301, doi:10.1002/2015JC010810.

Kwok, R. and C. Haas, Effects of radar sidelobes on snow depth retrievals from Operation IceBridge, J. Glac., 61(227), doi: 10.3189/2015JoG14J229.

Carmack, E., I. Polyakov, L. Padman, I. Fer, E. Hunke, J. Hutchings, J. Jackson, D. Kelly, R. Kwok, C. Layton, H. Melling, D. Perovich, O. Persson, B. Ruddick, M-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, T. Ross, S. Vavrus, P. Windsor (2015), Towards Quantifying The Increasing Role Of Oceanic Heat In Sea Ice Loss In The New Arctic, BAMS, 96(12), 2079-2105, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00177.1.

Kwok, R., (2014), Simulated effects of a snow layer on retrieval of CryoSat-2 sea ice freeboard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060993.

Kwok, R. and T. Maksym (2014), Snow depth of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea ice covers from IceBridge surveys in 2010 and 2011: An examination, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JC009943.

Patel, A., J. Paden, C. Leuschen, R. Kwok, D. Gomez-Garcia, B. Panzer, M. W. J. Davidson and S. Gogineni, Fine-Resolution Radar Altimeter Measurements on Land and Sea Ice, IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Rem. Sens., in press.

Kwok, R., T. Markus, J. Morison, S. P. Palm, T. A. Neumann, K. M. Brunt, W. B. Cook, D. W. Hancock, and G. F. Cunningham. (2014), Profiling sea ice with a Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol., 31(5), doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00120.1.

Holland, P., N. Bruneau, C. Enright, M. Losch, N. Kurtz, and R. Kwok (2014), Modelled trends in Antarctic sea ice thickness, J. Clim.,27, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00301.

Curry, B., C. M. Lee, B. Petrie, R. E. Moritz, and R. Kwok (2014), Multiyear volume, liquid freshwater, and sea ice transports through Davis Strait, 2004-10, J. Phy. Oceanog., doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0177.s1.

Kwok, R. (2014), Declassified high-resolution visible imagery for Arctic sea ice investigations: An overview, Remote Sens. Environ., 142, 44-56, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.11.015.

2012 – 2013 (10)

de Steur, L., M. Steele, E. Hansen, J. Morison, I. Polyakov, S.M. Olsen, H. Melling, F.A. McLaughlin, R. Kwok, W.M. Smethie Jr. and P. Schlosser (2013), Hydrographic changes in the Lincoln Sea in the Arctic Ocean with focus on an upper ocean freshwater anomaly between 2007-2010, J. Geophys. Res., 118(9), doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20341.

Kwok, R., G. Spreen, and S. Pang (2013), Arctic sea ice circulation and drift speed: Decadal trends and ocean currents, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20191.

Laxon, S. W., K. A. Giles, A. L. Ridout, D. J. Wingham, R. Willatt, R. Cullen, R. Kwok, A. Schweiger, J. Zhang, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, R. Krishfield, N. Kurtz, S. Farrell and M. Davidson (2013), CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi: 10.1002/grl.50193.

Holland, P. R. and R. Kwok (2012), Wind-driven trends in Antarctic sea ice drift, Nat Geosci., doi: 10.1038/NGEO1627.

Nguyen, A., R. Kwok, D. Menemenlis (2012), Source and pathway of the Western Arctic upper halocline in a data-constrained coupledocean and sea ice model, J. Phys. Oceanog., 42, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-040.1

Morison, J., R. Kwok, C. Peralta-Ferriz, M. Alkier, I. Rigor, R. Anderson, and M. Steele, (2012), Changing Arctic Ocean freshwaterpathways, Nature, 481, 66-70, doi:10.1038/nature10705.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, S. S. Manizade, W. B. Krabill (2012), Arctic sea ice freeboard from IceBridge acquisitions in 2009: Estimates and comparisons with ICESat, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C02018, doi:10.1029/2011JC007654.

Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham (2012), Deformation of the Arctic Ocean ice cover after the 2007record minimum in summer ice extent, CRST, 76-77, doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2011.04.003.

Polyakov, I. V., J. Walsh, R. Kwok (2012), Recent changes of arctic multiyear sea-ice coverage and the likely causes, BAMS, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00070.1.

Johnson, M., A. Proshutinsky, Y. Aksenov, A. Nguyen, R. Lindsay, C. Haas, J. Zhang, N. Diansky, R. Kwok, W. Maslowski, S. Hakkinen, I. Ashik, B. de Cuevas, (2012), Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 117, doi:10.1029/2011JC007257.

2010 – 2011 (23)

Abdalati, W., H. J. Zwally, R. Bindschadler, B. Csatho, S. L. Farrell, H. A. Fricker, D. Harding, R. Kwok, M. Lefsky, T. Markus, A. Marshak, T. Neumann, S. Palm, B. Schutz, B. Smith, J. Spinhirne, C. Webb (2010), The ICESat-2 Laser Altimetry Mission, Proc. IEEE , 98(5),735-751, doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2009.2034765.

Comiso, J. C., R. Kwok, S. Martin, and A. L. Gordon (2011), Variability and trends in sea ice extent and ice production in the Ross Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C04021, doi:10.1029/2010JC006391.

Drucker, R., S. Martin, and R. Kwok (2011), Sea ice production and export from coastal polynyas in the Weddell and Ross Seas, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17502, doi:10.1029/2011GL048668.

Freeman, A., V. Zlotnicki, T. Liu, B. Holt, R. Kwok, S. Yueh, J. Vazquez, D. Siegel, G. Lagerloef (2010), Ocean Measurements from Space in 2025, Oceanography, 23(4):144-161.

Jay, C. V., M. S. Udevitz, R. Kwok, A. S. Fischbach, and D. C. Douglas. (2010). Divergent movements of walrus and sea ice in the northern Bering Sea, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 407:293-302.

Kwok, R. (2011), Observational assessments of Arctic Ocean sea ice motion, export, and thickness in CMIP3 climate simulations, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JC007004.

Kwok, R. (2011), Satellite remote sensing of sea ice thickness and kinematics: A review, J. Glacio., 56, 200.

Kwok, R. and J. Morison (2011), Dynamic topography of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean from ICESat, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02501, doi:10.1029/2010GL046063.

Kwok, R. and N. Untersteiner (2011), The thinning of Arctic sea ice, Phys. Today, 64(4), 36-41.

Kwok, R., and N. Untersteiner (2011) New High-Resolution Images of Summer Sea Ice, EOS Trans. AGU, 92(7), 53-54.

Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham (2011), Deformation of the Arctic Ocean ice cover after the 2007 record minimum in summer ice extent, CRST, doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2011.04.003.

Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham (2010), Contribution of melt in the Beaufort Sea to the decline in Arctic multiyear sea ice coverage: 1993-2009, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20501, doi:10.1029/2010GL044678.

Kwok, R., B. Panzer, C. Leuschen, S. Pang, T. Markus, B. Holt, and S. Gogineni (2011), Airborne surveys of snow depth over Arctic sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11018, doi:10.1029/2011JC00737.

Kwok, R. and D. Sulsky (2010), Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness and kinematics: Satellite retrievals and modeling, Oceanography, 23(4): 134-143.

Kwok, R., L. Toudal Pedersen, P. Gudmandsen, and S. S. Pang (2010), Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L03502, doi:10.1029/2009GL041872.

Nguyen, A., D. Menemenlis, R. Kwok, (2011), Arctic ice-ocean simulation with optimized model parameters: Approach and assessment, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C04025, doi:10.1029/2010JC006573.

Farrell, S., T. Markus, R. Kwok, L. Connor (2011), Laser altimetry sampling strategies over sea ice, Ann. Glacio., 52(57), 69-76.

Perovich, D., R. Kwok, W. Meier, S. Nghiem, J. Richter-Menge., (2010): The Arctic: Sea ice cover [in State of the Climate in 2009], Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91 (6), S88-S90.

Rawlins, M. A., M. Steele, M. M. Holland, J. C. Adam, J. E. Cherry, J. A. Francis, P. Ya. Groisman, L. D. Hinzman, T. G. Huntington, D. L. Kane, J. S. Kimball, R. Kwok, R. B. Lammers, C. M. Lee, D. P. Lettenmaier, K. C. McDonald, E. Podest, J. W. Pundsack, B. Rudels, M. C. Serreze, A. Shiklomanov, O. Skagseth, T. J. Troy, C. J. Vorosmarty, M. Wensnahan, E. F. Wood, R. Woodgate, D. Yang, K. Zhang, T. Zhang. (2010), Analysis of the Arctic System for Freshwater Cycle Intensification: Observations and Expectations. J. Clim., 23(21): 5715-5737, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3421.1.

Schweiger A., R. Lindsay, J. Zhang, M. Steele, H. Stern, and R. Kwok (2011), Uncertainty in sea ice volume, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00D06, doi:10.1029/2011JC007084.

Spreen, G., R. Kwok, and D. Menemenlis (2011), Trends in Arctic sea ice drift and role of wind forcing: 1992-2009, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L19501, doi:10.1029/2011GL048970.

Toyota, K., J. C. McConnell, A. Lupu, L. Neary, C. A. McLinden, A. Richter, R. Kwok, K. Semeniuk, J. W. Kaminski, S.-L. Gong, J. Jarosz, M. P. Chipperfield, and C. E. Sioris (2011), Synoptic-scale meteorological control on reactive bromine production and ozone depletion in the Arctic boundary layer: 3-D simulation with the GEM-AQ model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, doi:10.5194/acp-11-3949-2011.

van Angelen, J. H., M. R. van den Broeke, R. Kwok (2011), The Greenland Sea Jet: A mechanism for wind-driven sea ice export through Fram Strait, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L12805, doi:10.1029/2011GL047837.

2008 – 2009 (9)

Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock (2009), Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15501, doi:10.1029/2009GL039035.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, M. Wensnahan, I. Rigor, H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi (2009), Thinning and volume loss of Arctic sea ice: 2003-2008, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2009JC005312.

Kwok, R. (2008), Outflow of Arctic sea ice into the Greenland and Barents Seas: 1979-2007. J. Clim., 22(9), 2438 2457, doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2819.1.

Nguyen, A. T., D. Menemenlis, and R. Kwok (2009), Improved modeling of the Arctic halocline with a subgrid-scale brine rejection parameterization, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C11014, doi:10.1029/2008JC005121.

Lindsay, R. W., R. Kwok, L. de Steur, and W. Meier (2008): Halo of ice deformation observed over the Maud Rise seamount, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L15501, doi:10.1029/2008GL034629.

Kwok, R., E. C. Hunke, W. Maslowski, D. Menemenlis, and J. Zhang (2008): Variability of sea ice simulations assessed with RGPS kinematics, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C11012, doi:10.1029/2008JC004783.

Kwok, R., and G. F. Cunningham (2008): ICESat over Arctic sea ice: Estimation of snow depth and ice thickness, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08010, doi:10.1029/2008JC004753.

Kwok, R. (2008): Summer sea ice motion from the 18 GHz channel of AMSR-E and the exchange of sea ice between the Pacific and Atlantic Sectors, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03504, doi:10.1029/2007GL032692.

Zwally, H. J., D. Yi, R. Kwok, and Y. Zhao (2008): ICESat measurements of sea ice freeboard and estimates of sea ice thickness in the Weddell Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C02S15, doi:10.1029/2007JC004284.

2006– 2007(13)

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi (2007): Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) over Arctic sea ice: Retrieval of freeboard, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C12013, doi:10.1029/2006JC003978.

Kwok, R., J. C. Comiso, S. Martin, and R. Drucker (2007): Ross Sea polynyas: Response of ice concentration retrievals to large areas of thin ice, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C12012, doi:10.1029/2006JC003967.

Kwok, R. (2007), Baffin Bay ice drift and export, 2002-2007: Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19501,doi:10.1029/2007GL031204.

Kwok, R. (2007): Near zero replenishment of the Arctic multiyear sea ice cover at the end of 2005 summer, Geophys. Res Lett., 34, L05501, doi:10.1029/2006GL028737.

Morison, J., J. Wahr, R. Kwok, and C. Peralta-Ferriz (2007): Recent trends in Arctic Ocean mass distribution revealed by GRACE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L07602, doi:10.1029/2006GL029016.

Kwok, R., and M. D. Coon (2006): Introduction to special section: Small-Scale Sea Ice Kinematics and Dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C11S21, doi:10.1029/2006JC003877.

Kwok, R. (2006): Exchange of sea ice between the Arctic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16501, doi:10.1029/2006GL027094.

Martin, S., R. Drucker, and R. Kwok (2007): The areas and ice production of the western and central Ross Sea polynyas, 1991-2002 and their relation to the B-15 and C-19 iceberg events of 2000 and 2002, J. Mar. Sys., 68, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2006.11.008.

Coon, M., R. Kwok, G. Levy, M. Pruis, H. Schreyer, and D. Sulsky (2007): Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (AIDJEX) assumptions revisited and found inadequate, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11S90, doi:10.1029/2005JC003393.

Schreyer, H. L., D. L. Sulsky, L. B. Munday, M. D. Coon, and R. Kwok (2006): Elastic-decohesive constitutive model for sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C11S26, doi:10.1029/2005JC003334.

Sulsky, D., H. Schreyer, K. Peterson, R. Kwok, and M. Coon (2007): Using the material-point method to model sea ice dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C02S90, doi:10.1029/2005JC003329.

Kwok, R, (2006): Contrasts in Arctic Ocean sea ice deformation and production in the seasonal and perennial ice zones, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C11S22, doi:10.1029/2005JC003246, 2006.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi (2006): ICESat over Arctic sea ice: Interpretation of altimetric and reflectivity profiles, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06006, doi:10.1029/2005JC003175.

2004– 2005(10)

Kwok, R.: Variability of Nares Strait ice flux, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24502, doi:10.1029/2005GL024768, 2005.

Kwok, R.: Ross Sea ice motion, flux, and deformation, J. Clim., 18(18), 3759-3776, 2005.

Kwok, R., W. Maslowski, and S. W. Laxon (2005): On large outflows of Arctic sea ice into the Barents Sea, Geophys. Res Lett., 32, L22503, doi:10.1029/2005GL024485.

Cuny, J., P. Rhines, and R. Kwok: Davis Strait fluxes, Deep Sea Research I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 52(3), 519-542, 2005.

Martin, S., R. Drucker, R. Kwok and B. Holt: Improvements in the estimates of ice thickness and production in the Chukchi Sea polynyas derived from AMSR-E, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05505, doi:10.1029/2004GL022013, 2005.

McPhee, M., R. Kwok, R. Robbins, and M. Coon: Upwelling of Arctic pycnocline associated with shear motion of sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L10616, doi:10.1029/2004GL021819, 2005.

Kwok, R., H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi: ICESat observations of Arctic sea ice: A first look, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16401, doi:10.1029/2004GL020309, 2004.

Kwok, R.: Annual Cycles of Multiyear Sea Ice Coverage of the Arctic Ocean: 1999-2003. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C11004, doi:10.1029/2003JC002238, 2004.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, and S. S. Pang: Fram Strait sea ice outflow, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C01009, doi:10.1029/2003JC001785, 2004.

Martin, S., R. Drucker, R. Kwok and B. Holt: Estimation of the thin ice thickness and heat flux from SSM/I data for the Chukchi Sea Alaskan coast polynya for 1990 – 2001, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C10012, doi:10.1029/2004JC002428, 2004.

2002– 2003(15)

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, and W. D. Hibler III: Sub-daily ice motion and deformation from RADARSAT observations, Geophy. Res. Lett,, 30(23), 2218, doi:10.1029/2003GL018723, 2003.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, and S. V. Nghiem: A study of melt onset in RADARSAT SAR imagery, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C11), 3363, doi:10.1029/2002JC001363, 2003.

Kwok, R., and J. C. Comiso: Spatial patterns of Antarctic surface temperature: Connections to the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode and the Southern Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett, 29(12), 10.1029/2002GL015415,2002.

Kwok, R.: Sea ice concentration from passive microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion, Geophys. Res. Lett, 29(10), 10.1029/2002GL014787,2002.

Kwok, R.: Arctic Ocean sea ice area and volume production: A contrast of two years – 1996/97 and 1997/98. Ann. Glacio. 34, 447-453, 2002.

Kwok, R. and J. C. Comiso: Southern Ocean Climate and Sea Ice Anomalies Associated with the Southern Oscillation, J. Clim., 15(5), 487-501, 2002.

Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham: Seasonal ice area and volume production of the Arctic Ocean: November 1996 through April 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 8038, 10.1029/2000JC000469, 2002.

Richter-Menge, J. A., S. L. McNutt, J. E. Overland, and R. Kwok: Relating arctic pack ice stress and deformation under winter conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 8040, doi:10.1029/2000JC000477, 2002.

Bardel, P., A. G. Fountain, D. Hall, and R. Kwok: Synthetic Aperture Radar Detection of the Snowline on Polar Glaciers, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Ann. Glacio. 34, 177-183.

Nghiem, S. V., D. K.. Perovich, A. J. Gow, R. Kwok, D. G. Barber, and J. C. Comiso: Observation of sea ice surface thermal states under cloud cover, JGR-Oceans.

Nghiem, S. V., K. Steffan, R. Kwok, and W-Y. Tsai: Detection of snowmelt regions on the Greenland ice sheet using diurnal backscatter change, J. Glaciol., 47(159), 539-547, 2002.

Zhang, J., D. Thomas, D. Rothrock, R. Lindsay, Y. Yu, and R. Kwok: Assimilation of ice motion observations and comparisons with submarine ice thickness data. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C6):3170, DO1: 10.1029/2001JC001041, 2003.

Wang, J., R. Kwok, F. J. Saucier, J. Hutchings, M. Ikeda, W. D. Hilbler III, J. Haapala, M . D. Coon, H. E. Markus Meier, H. Eicken, N. Tanaka, D. Prentki, W. Johnson: Working Toward Improved Small-scale Sea Ice Ocean Modeling in the Arctic Seas, EOS Trans. AGU, 84(34) 325-336, 2003.

Wu, Xiaoping, M.M. Watkins, E.R. Ivins, R. Kwok, P. Wang, J.M. Wahr: Toward global inverse solutions for the determination of currrent and past mass variations: Contribution of secular satellite gravity and topography change measurements J. Geophys. Res., 107 (B11), 2291, doi:10.1029/2001JB000543, 2002.

2000– 2001(7)

Kwok, R., M. Seigert, and F. D. Carsey: Ice motion over Lake Vostok, J. Glacio., 46(155), 689-694, 2001.

Fahnestock, M.A., I. Joughin, T.A. Scambos, R. Kwok, W.B. Krabill, and S. Gogineni: Ice stream related patterns of ice flow in the interior of northeast Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24), 34035-34045, 2001.

Fahnestock, M. A., T. A. Scambos, C. A. Shuman, R. J. Arthern, D. P. Winebrenner, and R. Kwok: Snow megadune fields on the East Antarctic Plateau: extreme atmosphere-ice interaction Geophys. Res. Ltrs. 27(22), 3719-3722, 2000.

Kwok, R.: Recent changes of the Arctic Ocean sea ice motion associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett, 27(6), 775-778, 2000.

Siegert, M. J., R. Kwok, C. Mayer, and B. Hubbard: Water exchange between the subglacial Lake Vostok and the overlying ice sheet, Nature, 403(6770), 643-646, 2000.

Siegert, M.J. and Kwok, R.: Ice-sheet radar layering and the development of preferred crystal orientation fabrics between Lake Vostok and Ridge B, central East Antarctica. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 179 (2), 227-235, 2000.


Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, and S. Yueh: Area Balance of the Arctic Ocean Perennial Ice Zone: Oct 1996- April 1997, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C11), 25747-25749, 1999.

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, N. LaBelle-Hamer, B. Holt, and D. A. Rothrock, Ice thickness Derived from high-resolution SAR imagery, Eos, Trans. AGU, 80(42), 495-497,1999.

Kwok, R. and D. A. Rothrock, Variability of Fram Strait Flux and North Atlantic Oscillation, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C3), 5177-5189, 1999.

Kwok, R., A. Schweiger, D. A. Rothrock, S. Pang and C. Kottmeier: Sea ice motion from satellite passive microwave data assessed with ERS SAR and buoy data, J. Geophys. Res.,103(C4), 8191-8214, 1998.

Kwok, R., S. V. Nghiem, S. Martin, D. P. Winebrenner, A. J. Gow, D. K. Perovich, C. T. Swift, D. G. Barber, K. M. Golden and E. Knapp: Laboratory measurements of sea ice: Connections to microwave remote sensing, IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Rem. Sens. , 36(5), 1716-70, 1998.

Kwok, R. and J. C. Comiso: The perennial ice cover of the Beaufort Sea from active and passive observations, Annals of Glaciol., 25, 376-381, 1998.

Nghiem, S.V., R. Kwok, S. H. Yueh: Diurnal Cycling effects on the microwave signatures of thin sea ice, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 36, No. 1, 111-124, 1998

Golden, K. M., D. Borup, M. Cheny, E. Cherkaeva, M. S. Dawson, K.-H. ding, A. K. Fung, D. Issacson, S. A. Johnson, A. K. Jordan, J. A. Kong, R. Kwok, S.V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, J. Sylvester, D. P. Winebrenner, I. H. H. Zabel: Inverse electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice, IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Rem. Sens. , 36(5), 1675-1704, 1998.

Joughin, I. R., M. Fahnestock, R. Kwok, P. Gogineni, and C. Allen: Ice flow of Humboldt, Petermann and Ryder Gletscher, northern Greenland, J. Glacio., 45(150), 231-241, 1999.

Joughin, I. R., R. Kwok and M. A. Fahnestock: Interferometric estimation of three-dimensional ice-flow using ascending and descending passes, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 36, No. 1, 1998.

Yueh, S. and R. Kwok: Arctic sea ice extent and melt onset from NSCAT observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(23), 4369-4372, 1999.


Kwok, R., J. C. Comiso and G. F. Cunningham: Seasonal Characteristics of the Perennial sea ice cover of the Beaufort sea. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (C12), 28417-28439, 1996.

Kwok, R. and M. Fahnestock: Ice Sheet Motion and Topography from Radar Interferometry, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. Vol. 34, No. 1, 189-200, 1996.

Comiso, J. C. and R. Kwok: Surface and radiative characteristics of the summer Arctic sea cover from multisensor satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (C12), 28397-28416, 1996.

Joughin, I. R., M. Fahnestock, S. Ekholm and R. Kwok: Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet, Geophys. Rev. Lett., 24(23), pp. 3045-3048, 1997.

Joughin, I., S. Tulaczyk, M. Fahnestock, R. Kwok: A Mini-Surgeon the Ryder Glacier, Greenland Observed via Satellite Radar Interferometry, Science, vol 274, pp. 228-230, 1996.

Joughin. I, R. Kwok, M. Fahnestock: Estimation of Ice Sheet Motion Using Satellite Radar Interferometry: Method and Error Analysis with Application to the Humboldt Glacier, Greenland, J. of Glaciol., 42(142), 564-575, 1996.

Joughin, I., D. Winebrenner, M. Fahnestock, R. Kwok, and, W. Krabill: 1996, Measurement of ice-sheet topography using satellite radar interferometry, J Glacio., vol. 42, no. 140, 1996.

Liu, A. K., S. Martin and R. Kwok: Tracking of ice edges and ice floes by Wavelet analysis of SAR Images, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 14, 1187-1198, 1997.

Nghiem, S., R. Kwok, S. Yueh, A. J. Gow, D. K. Perovich, J. A. Kong and C. C. Hsu: Evolution in polarimetric signature of thin saline ice under constant growth, Radio Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 127-151, 1997.

Nghiem, S., S. Martin, D. K. Perovich, R. Kwok, R. Drucker, A. J. Gow, K. H. Ding, and J. A. Kong: A laboratory study of the effect of frost flowers on C-band radar backscatter from sea ice, J. Geophys. Res., 102(C2), 3357-3370, 1997.

Nghiem, S. V, R. Kwok, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, S. A. Arcone and A. J. Gow: An electrodynamic model with distributed properties for effective permittivities of sea ice, Radio Sci., 31(2), 297-311, 1996.

Yueh, S. R. Kwok, S. H. Lou and W. Y. Tsai: Sea ice identification using dual-polarized Ku-band scatterometer data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35(3), 560-569, 1997.


Kwok, R., D. A. Rothrock, H. L. Stern and G. F. Cunningham: Determination of Age Distribution of Sea Ice from Lagrangian Observations of Ice Motion, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 392-400, 1995.

Kwok, R., S. V. Nghiem, S. H. Yueh: Retrieval of Thin Ice Thickness from Multi-frequency Polarimetric SAR Data, Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 51, No. 3, 361-374, 1995.

Kwok, R and G. F. Cunningham: Backscatter Characteristics of the Winter Sea Ice Cover in the Beaufort Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 99 (C4), 7787-7803, 1994.

Stern, H. L., D. A. Rothrock and R. Kwok: Open Water Production in Arctic Sea Ice: Satellite measurements and model parameterizations, J. Geophys. Res., 100 (C10), 20601-20612, 1995.

Kwok, R. and T. Baltzer: The Geophysical Processor System at the Alaska SAR Facility. Photogramm. Engrg. and Remote Sens., Vol. 61, No. 12, 1445-1453, 1995.

Fetterer, F., D. Gineris and R. Kwok: Sea ice type maps from Alaska synthetic aperture radar facility imagery: An assessment, J. Geophys. Res., 99 (C11), 22443-22458, 1994.

Nghiem, S. V., R. Kwok, S. H. Yueh and M. R. Drinkwater: Polarimetric Signatures of Sea Ice - Part I: Theoretical Model, J. Geophys. Res., 100(C7), 13665-13679, 1995.

Nghiem, S. V., R. Kwok, S. H. Yueh and M. R. Drinkwater: Polarimetric Signatures of Sea Ice - Part II: Experimental Observations, J. Geophys. Res., 100(C7), 13681-13698, 1995.

Hara, Y., R. G. Atkins, R. T. Shin, J. A. Kong, S. Yueh and R. Kwok: Application of Neural Networks for Sea Ice Classification in Polarimetric SAR Images, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 740-748, 1995.

Lee, J. S., R. Grunes and R. Kwok: Classification of multi-look polarimetric SAR imagery based on complex Wishart distribution, Int. J. Remote Sensing, Vol. 15, No. 11, 2299-2311.

Yueh, S., S. Nghiem and R. Kwok: Polarimetric scattering and emission properties of targets with reflection symmetry, Radio Science, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 1409-1420, 1994.

Johnson, J. T., J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, S. H. Yueh, S. V. Nghiem and R. Kwok: Polarimetric thermal emission from Rough Ocean Surfaces. JEMA, Vol 8, No. 1, 43-59, 1994.

Yueh, S. H., S. V. Nghiem, R. Kwok, W. J. Wilson, F. K. Li, J. T. Wilson and J. A. Kong: Polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces, Radio Science, Vol 29, No. 1, 87-96, 1994.

Kwok, R., E. Rignot, J. Way, A. Freeman and J. Holt.: Polarization Signatures of Frozen and Thawed Forests of Varying Environment State, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 371-381, 1994.

Way, J., E. Rignot, K. C. McDonald, R. Oren, R. Kwok, G. Bonan, M. C. Dobson, L. A. Vierick, J. E. Roth: Evaluating the type and state of Alaska Taiga forests with imaging radar for use in Ecosystem models, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 353-370,1994.


Fahnestock, M., R. Bindschadler, R. Kwok, and K. Jezek: Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Properties and Ice Dynamics from ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery, Science, Vol. 262, 1530-1534, 1993.

Nghiem, S. V., S. Yueh, R. Kwok, and D. T. Nguyen: Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Geophysical Medium Structures, Radio Science, Vol 28, No. 6, 1111-1130, 1993.

Nghiem, S. V., R. Kwok, J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin: A Model with Ellipsoidal Scatterers for Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Anisotropic Layered Media. Radio Science, Vol 28, No. 5, 687-703, 1993.

Nghiem, S., S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, and F. K. Li.: Symmetry Properties in Polarimetric Remote Sensing. Radio Science, Vol 27, No. 5, 693-711, 1992.

Jezek, K., J. P. Crawford, R. Bindschadler, M. Drinkwater, and R. Kwok: Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Collected Over the Southwestern Greenland Ice Sheet. J. of Glaciology, Vol. 39, No. 131, pp 119-132.

Kwok, R., E. Rignot, B. Holt, and R. G. Onstott: Identification of Sea Ice Type in Spaceborne SAR Data. J. Geophys. Res., 97 (C2), 2391-2402, 1992.

Rignot, E. and R. Kwok: Spatial Statistics of Distributed Targets in SAR Image Data., Int. J. of Remote Sens., Vol. 14, No. 2, 345-363, 1993.


Drinkwater, M., R. Kwok,, D. Winebrenner and E. Rignot: Multifrequency Polarimetry Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations of Sea-Ice. J. Geophys. Res., 96 (C11), 20,679-20,698, 1991.

Rignot, E., R. Kwok, J. Curlander and S. Pang: Automated Multisensor Registration: Requirements and Techniques. Photogram. Engrg and Rem. Sens., Vol. 57, No. 8, August 1991, 1029-1038.

McConnell, R., R. Kwok, J. Curlander, S. Pang and W. Kobe:, Ψ-S Correlation and Dynamic Time Warping: Two Methods for Tracking Ice Floes in SAR Images. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 1004-1012, 1991.

Kwok, R., J.C. Curlander and S.S. Pang: An Automated System for Mosaicking Spaceborne SAR Imagery, Int. J. of Remote Sens., Vol. 11, No. 2, 1990, 209-223.

Kwok, R., J.C. Curlander, R. McConnell and S. Pang: An Ice Motion Tracking System at the Alaska SAR Facility, IEEE J. of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan 1990, 44-54.

Before 1989(10)

Kwok, R. and W.T.K. Johnson: Block Adaptive Quantization of Magellan SAR Data, IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Remote Sens., Vol. 27, No. 4, July 1989.

Chang, C.Y., R. Kwok and J.C. Curlander: Spatial Compression of SEASAT SAR Imagery, IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 26, No. 5, September 1988.

Arvidson, R., M. Schulte, R. Kwok, J.C. Curlander, C. Elachi, J. Ford and R.S. Saunders: Construction and Analysis of Simulated Venera and Magellan Images of Venus, ICARUS, 75, 1988, 161-181.

Kwok, R., J.C. Curlander and S. Pang: Rectification of Terrain Induced Distortion in Radar Imagery, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 53, No. 5, May 1987, pp 507-513.

Curlander, J. C., R. Kwok and S. Pang: A Post-Processing System for Automated Rectification and Registration of SAR Imagery, Int.l J. of Remote Sensing, 1987, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp 621-638.

Friedmann, D.E., J.P. Friedel, K.L. Magnussen, R. Kwok, and S. Richardson: Multiple Scene Precision Rectification of Spaceborne Imagery with very Few Ground Control Points, Photogrammetric Engr. and Remote Sens. Vol. 49, No. 12, p. 1657, 1983.

Evans, E. and R. Kwok: Mechanical Calorimetry of Large DMPC Vesicles in the Phase Transition Region, Biochem. 20:4874, 1982.

Evans, E. and R. Kwok: Controlled Aggregation of PS-PC vesicles in Calcium, Biophy. J. 37:A165-A165, 1982

Kwok, R. and E. Evans: Thermoelasticity of Large Lecithin Bilayer Vesicles, Biophy. J. 35:637-652, 1982.

Evans, E., R. Kwok and J.T. McKown: Calibration of Beam Deflection produced by Cellular forces in the 10-9 to 10-6 gram range, Cell Biophys. 2:99, 1980.

Mail to: Ronald Kwok